After the Second World War was the economic freedom in Germany, a new opportunity. The American military government tried to put Germany on the rail this time for economic success, give him a liberal economic order. That was not – at least not to the same extent – on the other occupying powers: the Soviet Union exploited by forces from East Germany, France, opened a large-scale dismantling campaign and the British Labour government introduced in the British zone of the Montan codetermination.The Americans, however, wanted to prevent the repetition of Versailles would. West Germany should be a bulwark against Soviet communism. The most visible expression of this helpfulness was the Marshall Plan.
The American military government sought German economists who should implement their liberal ideas into practice. With Ludwig Erhard, they found someone who believed more strongly in the market economy as the German governor of President Truman. That became clear when Erhard introduced in 1948 not only the D-mark, but the same also released the prices arbitrarily.
The economic legacy that Germany received in this time of the Americans consisted essentially of five parts:
Cartels,Deregulation,DenationalizationDecentralization andan independent central bank.
What is this heritage has become?
Some German politicians opposed from the start from – such a far-reaching decentralization . The Parliamentary Council, led by Konrad Adenauer tried to block the wishes of the Americans as much decentralization as possible. Because the leading German politicians knew that any form of competitive federalism would later limit their power at the federal level. The constitutional guarantee of the federal German politicians had to be imposed by the Americans.
Other parts of the American heritage of the Germans tried not to kick start, but as soon as possible to be rid of. This included the decentralization of public finances. The Basic Law of 1949 saw the tax before the separation system. The federal government received most of the sales tax and excise duties, import duties and other revenue to the financial monopolies. This separation of tax sources to local authorities had also come under pressure from the Americans about. In place of the separation system the Germans used early on a composite system, the tax competition in the area off the income and corporation tax. The competition between the countries has been replaced by a tax cartel. The tax first went all in one big pot, then the prey was distributed among federal and state governments. Also added to the horizontal fiscal equalization between countries is a vertical – with the participation of the federal government – and to each country a minimum guaranteed funding. In the area of government spending were the responsibilities of the federal extended and defined joint tasks of federal and state governments. Mixed financing spread. The federalism reform of 2006 has reversed some, but the competition between countries – a guarantee of economic freedom – is still a shadow of what it was in 1949 and competition from American Federalism far.
Independence of the central bankHas been restricted in the fifties. The driving force was Konrad Adenauer – especially after he lost due to several state elections lost its political majority in the Central Bank. In his “Gürzenich” speech he sharply criticized the central bank, and he insisted that the bank of German countries was dissolved in 1957 and joined the German Bundesbank in its place. The federal government now had the right to the members of the voting Directors to determine – up to eight in number, this was not the majority of the Federal Reserve Board, but as long as the Union would have the final say in at least two of the eleven provinces, was Adenauer's majority in Central Bank secured.